The water gets
polluted when toxic substances enters the lakes, oceans, rivers,
streams and get collected on the bed which gradually deteriorates
the quality of the water. Industrial wastes that are discharged
in the rivers are the main cause of water pollution. There
are no adequate facilities to treat the waste. Another major
water pollutant is the water from the fields that drains in
like cans, bottles, plastics etc., are thrown in lakes, rivers
polluting them as these contain harmful chemicals. Earlier
soaps made of animal and vegetable fats were used but today
these detergents come from petrochemical industries. All forms
of life in the water are affected as these detergents contains
phosphates which softens the water.
POLLUTION AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH: -
Fresh and clean drinking
water is essential for a healthy living. But yet millions
are deprived of this. The main cause of fresh water pollution
is the discharge of untreated waste. Diseases like water-borne
diseases are caused due to chemicals in drinking water which
can be prevented by adequate measures.
OF GROUNDWATER: -
heavy metals etc. contaminate the groundwater and has an adverse
affect on health. Inadequate water management cause water-borne
diseases. Safe water has higher coverage in urban areas than
in rural areas. There are places where people use hand pumps
for water as they cannot afford to pay for the services whereas
areas that can pay for services have access to safe water.
The most important
reason for contamination of water in the urban areas is the
water pipe and sewage line pass together where the water pipe
SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER
Most of the domestic waste
contains phosphorus and nitrogen, which increases the level
of nutrients in water bodies. Nitrate contamination of groundwater
is due to excessive use of fertilizers. By reducing the amount
of nitrates in the soil can help in good agricultural practices.
Pesticides : -
The pesticides such as DDT
run off from backyard and golf courses contaminate the water.
As these chemicals are persistent in the water it is a matter
Sewage : -
The main cause of groundwater
pollution is the inadequately treated municipal sewage. There
are diseases which spread as the sewages carry microbial pathogens.
Synthetic Organics: -
In the aquatic environment
are some of the synthetic compounds found. Industrial chemicals
are the most harmful elements for human life. These chemicals
generally accumulate in fish which inturn damages human life.
CHEMICALS FOUND IN DRINKING WATER: -
The chemicals that are found
in water are either introduced by human are naturally found
which have effects on human health.
Some of these chemicals
found in drinking water are mentioned below: -
Lead: - Household plumbing
systems like pipes, solders etc. are the main cause of contaminated
of drinking water as they contain lead.
Petrochemicals: - Petrochemicals
from petroleum storage tanks underground contaminates groundwater.
- For protection of dental
caries fluoride is essential but inturn could affect the health
if the level is higher.
Arsenic: - Arsenic could
have an adverse effect if the concentration of arsenic is
higher in the water. In west Bengal few years back majority
of people started suffering from skin illness due to high
arsenic element in drinking water. The government is trying
to remove arsenic from the water through different method
and provide an alternative for drinking water.
DISEASES CAUSED BY CONTAMINATED WATER: -
Contaminated water spreads
diseases like water borne disease. These diseases are spread
through filth or spread directly. The common water borne diseases
are cholera, typhoid, Hepatitis which have large affects on
population. People suffering from these diseases should be
carefully looked after as it is highly infectious.
MEASURES TO PREVENT DISEASES: -
Proper management of water
resources would prevent from water borne epidemics and lead
to a healthier and cleaner environment.
There should be
a proper check on the water supply and disinfect it to prevent
from any diseases to spread. On regular basis the leakages
and cracks should be checked in the water pipes. Water should
be boiled and filtered at home.