Who first climbed Mount Everest ?
Who became the first woman to sail around the world ?
Who was Buddha ?
Who was Aristotle ?
Who was Martin Luther King, Jr. ?
What is International Court ?
Who fought World War
Why World War II began ?
first climbed Mount Everest?
The highest mountain peak in the world is Mount Everest, in the Himalayas,
with a height of 8848 metres. The Himalayas lie to the north of India from Kashmir to the
north-eastern states. Most of the Himalayan ranges are in Nepal and so is Mount Everest.
It is always covered with ice and snow.
Everest is a very dangerous mountain to climb because of sheer rocks faces and storms.
Many Mountaineers failed to climb the peak. But a New Zealand mountaineer, Edmond Hillary
along with his guide Tenzin Nargay, became the first person to scale summit of the world
on May 29, 1953.
became the first woman to sail around the world?
The first woman to sail around the world single-handed was a 28-year old
New Zealander, Naomi James. In September 1977, she set sail from Dartmouth on the south
coast of England. Her 16-metre yacht, named Express Crusador, was fitted with all modern
navigation aids and steering gear. Her 48,000-kilometer journey was full of adventure.
At sea, after four weeks, her radio broke and after another five weeks, the self-steering
gear was smashed in a storm. By putting into port for sometime, Naomi had to get it
repaired. In June 1978 she successfully completed the sail and was made Dame Commander of
the British Empire. She set another record becoming the first woman to cross Atlantic
single-handed in 1980.
A prince of North Indian Kingdom Kapilvastu, Siddhartha Gautama was given
the title, Buddha, who founded the Buddhist religion. Siddhartha turned into Buddha after
he came across two truths of life. One day he saw an old man with bent back moving with
the help of a stick. Second time he saw a dead man being taken for cremation. He felt very
sad by seeing this. Why this happens in life is what he wanted to know.
Siddhartha left home when he was young to look for an answer to life's problems. He found
enlightenment while sitting under a Bodhi tree in Gaya. He realized that Nirvana, a state
of absolute peace and happiness, could bring release from the pressures of life. Only by
giving up all desires for worldly things, this state could be reached.
Aristotle was a Greek thinker, educator and Scientist. Than those of
almost any other person, his ideas have had more influence on the thinking of the Western
World. For 20 years, he was a pupil of the Philosopher Plato and these two men are
regarded as the most important of the Ancient Greek thinkers. Aristotle was the tutor of
Alexander the Great. He founded lyceum, a school in Athens. He deeply taught and wrote on
many subjects, including Science, Politics, Astronomy, Religion and Logic. Aristotle's
philosopher is characterized by its emphasis on reason and practicality. He was accused by
the people of Athens for not worshiping their gods properly and so he left Athens to avoid
a sentence of death.
was Martin Luther King, Jr.?
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Negro who led the fight for fair
treatment for his fellow Negroes. In 1955, King first gained national attention, when he
organized a boycott of segregated buses in Montgomery, Alabama. He used non-violent
methods like Gandhi. During a massive demonstration in Washington, he made an inspired
speech. In his struggle for the social rights for Negroes, this was a turning point. To
give Negroes equal rights with whites, laws were passed soon. For his efforts he received
the Noble Peace Prize. Like Gandhi, King was killed by some fanatic who opposed his ideas.
is International Court?
In Holland, a group of statesmen met to discuss ways of stopping wars and
solving disagreements between nations in 1899. To set up the International Court of
Justice, this was one of the ways they found. Countries who quarrel should go to the
international court where fifteen judges from different countries decide who is in the
right. Decisions are based on a majority of judges present. The countries in dispute have
to agree to accept the decision before they go to court. Disputes are very often about
where exactly frontiers between countries are drawn.
The European Court of Justice is another international court that sits in Luxembourg. This
was set up by the countries of the European Community. It makes sure that all the
countries of the common market obey the rules and it can fine countries, who disobey, very
heavily. Every member country appoints a judge.
fought World War I?
The World War which started in August 1914 went on for 4 years to end
November 1918. On one side were the two empires of Germany and Austria-Hungary, later
joined by Bulgaria and Turkey. They were called the Central Powers. Against them were
Allies-the Russian Empire to the east, the French to the west, the British and the
Belgium. Later the Italy, the Japan, United States, and many smaller nations joined the
Allies. Because so many countries were involved, it later came to be called a World War.
After four years, these nations that had started the war were weary and exhausted. More
than ten million soldiers had been killed. By coming fresh into the struggle, the United
States tipped the scale, and the Central powers collapsed in defeat.
World War II began ?
When Adolf Hitler, the German dictator sent his soldiers to attack two
small neighbouring countries, Austria and Czechoslovakia, nobody stopped him. This was the
time, the second world war began. But on 1st September, 1939, when Hitler attacked Poland,
the polish fought back. To help them, the British and the French stepped in. Over-running
Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium and France, he conquered Poland and then launched a
surprise attack in the west.
He then tried to break the spirit of the British but in 1941 lost the battle of Britain
against the R.A.F. Meanwhile, the Italian dictator Musolini an ally of Hitler along with
Japan had come in the war. The American, British and other forces landed on the Normady
beaches and forced the Germans out of France. They swept across Germany to meet their
Russian allies in 1945. In May 1945, Germany surrendered to the allied forces. A few
months later i.e in August 1945 the first atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In September 1945, Japan surrendered and the war ended.