Who discovered an Atom ?
Who invented Electric Bulb ?
Who invented Telephone ?
Who invented Radio ?
Who invented Television ?
How was the Computer invented ?
Who invented Jet Engine ?
Who invented paper making and how ?
discovered Atom ?
Democratus, a Greek philosopher, first put forward his ideas about the
composition of matter. The whole universe was made of tiny, invisible particles, he
suggested and called these particles Atoms. To confirm his views, no experimental
explanations could be put forward and thus his ideas were debated for hundreds of years.
Each chemical element is made up of identical atoms, a British chemist, John Dalton in
1808 suggested from his experimental work. Dalton also suggested that elements are
different because they are each made of different types of atoms. According to him the
atom was the smallest part of an element which cannot be cut or divided further. His views
came to be known as Dalton's atomic theory but was rejected by later workers.
invented Electric Bulb ?
Thomas Alva Edison, an American inventor, after two years of ceaseless
toil was the first to make practical electric bulb in 1879. His problem was to find a
filament that would slow when current is passed through it, without getting burnt. He
spent about 40,000 dollars and fruitless experiments. He tried many substances including a
hair from the beard of one of his workers. After trying about 6,000 materials, he used a
filament of carbonised cotton thread which continuously glowed for 40 hours in a vacuum. A
district in the center of New York was lighted with Edison's bulbs, by 1882.
invented Telephone ?
In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell, a Scottish- born American inventor and
teacher invented the telephone. Graham Bell taught deaf people how to speak and gave music
lessons. He studied how sounds are emitted by vibrating objects. He invented a form of
electric telegraph that sent signals as musical notes made by vibrating needs. This idea
led Graham Bell to devise a way of sending and receiving the frequencies present in the
human voice. His first telephone message was to his assistant. The instrument has been
greatly improvised since the bells time, though the principle of the modern telephone
remains the same.
invented Radio ?
In 1863, because of the discovery of radio waves by James Maxwell,
listening to music, songs, news etc, could be possible. In 1888, Heinrich Hertz could send
and receive these radio waves in his laboratory. At about 3,00,000 km per second these
radio waves move. For broadcasting, these radio waves can carry sound and picture signals.
In 1894, Sir Oliver Hedge gave the first practical demonstration of radio. To a distance
of 55 meters he sent a marse code message. An Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi at about
the same time managed to transmit a message over two kilometers. It was Marconi who
invented radio. In 1896 he came to England and established radio as practical and an
important means of communication. An experimental radio broadcasts had begun by 1910 and
in USA in 1915 an experimental radio station was opened.
invented Television ?
The Scottish television pioneer John Logie Baird demonstrated the first
television system in 1926. He rotated a disc with holes in it and transformed light from
picture into lines. He effected brightness variations into electric signals with the help
of photoelectric cell. In his receiver the signals made a bulb vary in brightness. The
viewers saw a faint, fuzzy image through roles in another spinning disc. The system was
soon replaced by a higher quality fully electronic system.
In U.K., Germany and USA in 1939 the television broadcast began. In 1950's the Colour
Television was experimented and in the last couple of decades became popular. Television
owes it's transmission of pictures to radio waves and sound from transmitters and their
reception in receiver sets. Nowadays for transmitting signals of sound and pictures in the
form of radio waves, satellites are used.
was the Computer invented ?
One of the most important technical inventions of the 20th century is the
computer. In 17th century the work on calculating devices began when a french
mathematician, Blaise Pascal, built the first mechanical calculating machine. It consisted
of a series of cogs connected to dials. It was then that Joseph Jacquard built an
automatic loom in 1805 in which the patterns were controlled by the punched cards. These
cards are still used in computers. Charles Baggage was the first to attempt make a real
computer in 1833. He set out to make what he called an Analytical Engine and this was to
be first general programmable computer. But because the engineering of the time was not
good enough, it could not be completed.
To make the United States census calculations hundreds of times faster, Herman Hollerith
used a punched card system in 1890. It was then during the Second World War in 1946, the
US computer ENIAC was built. A German engineer Konrad Zuse, at around the same time built
a machine using a similar approach. The same team that built ENIAC, built the UNIVCI in
1951, first mass-produced computer.
invented Jet Engine ?
In 1929, an English test pilot, Frank Whittle invented the jet engine. The
British Air Ministry initially rejected his idea and so he set up his own company and
built and tested the first engine on ground by 1937. An experimental aircraft with a
Whittle engine made its first flight in 1941. The latest modern high-speed aircraft are
powered by the jet engines.
In the jet engine there are many sets of fans. The first set at the front of the jet
engine spin and suck air into the engine. There are more fans inside the engine, which
compress the air and force it at high pressure into the combustion chamber. In the
combustion chamber, liquid fuel heats the air that expands and rushes towards the tail of
the engine. As it streams out, a turbine in the way rotates and drives the fans at the
invented paper making and how ?
The invention of paper was first made in China which was one of the
greatest discoveries of Han dynasty in China about 105 A.D. Paper was made using fibres
from the mulberry tree by the Han people. The idea is said to have come from someone
watching wasps building their nests from tiny wood chips. Almost two thousand years ago
the principle used is followed even today but with the use of different raw materials. Old
Silk, hemp or mulberry bark is what the Chinese used. The papermaking was cheap since
these materials were available in plenty.
The raw material was collected and mixed with water. To make a sort of paste, this was
trodden and then mixed with potash. This mixture was steamed and pulped over a furnace. In
a bath of clear water was this mixture placed and mesh frames were dipped into it. When
dried in the sun the mixture covering the frames formed into sheets of paper. Paper was of
utmost importance due to the good governess in china and government officials used it to