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The product of many historical forces is Modern India. The contact with the western civilisation was the most important of these, which came in the reign of British rule in India. The British, initially came to trade, but stayed to rule. All the major parts of India were occupied by them, bit by bit. The country was gradually transformed politically, economically and socially too.

The British plundered every class of Indian people and ruled India for its own benefit. Indian industries were destroyed so that British manufactured goods could find a market. Even the plantation workers were exploited. The peasants were also taxed heavily. The craftsmen, lost their means of livelihood whose products once adorned the courts of Rome. To shake off the British yoke, people revolted. The revolt was ruthlessly crushed during the first war independence and India became the prized part of the British empire.

There were many great leaders like Raja Rammohan Roy who, for the Hindu society gave a new direction. The english language opened up a broad vista of modern ideas. With the introduction of postal system, railways, etc., communication became easier. A new class of english educated Indians grew up who later became the leaders of freedom movements.

Indians demanded more political and economic rights, as national feeling grew, to form the Indian National Congress in 1885. An englishman, A.O Hume helped the Indians, so that they could voice these demands in an organised manner. The British had no idea that the congress would one day challenge them and they would ultimately lose the brightest jewel in the english crown.

A new phase in India's history began with the dawn of the 20th century.